সোমবার, ১৬ সেপ্টেম্বর, ২০১৩

Live Research: The scenario of Bangladesh is threateningly enlightened.

Live Research: The scenario of Bangladesh is 

threateningly enlightened.

Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy with a unicameral legislature. The nation remains a developing country with severe infrastructure shortcomings. Tourist facilities are minimal as are capacities to deal with emergency situations. 

Bangladesh is located on the northern edge of the Bay of Bengal, is bordered on three sides by India and shares a small border with Burma. Approximately 150 million people inhabit Bangladesh, which has a land area of 55,598 square miles, slightly smaller than the size of Iowa. This seventh most populous nation is one of the most crowded countries in the world, ranked fifth in population density.

Though by almost any gauge Bangladesh remains a developing country, the impact of two decades of nearly six percent annual growth is visible throughout the country, in particular in Dhaka. Meanwhile, the partnership between Bangladesh and its development partners has placed the country on track to meet many of its Millennium Development Goals, according to a 2011 Progress Report by the United Nations Development Program.  Bangladeshis now can expect to live longer, infant and maternal mortality have been dramatically reduced at a rate with few parallels in human history, and the living standards and opportunities afforded to women and children have noticeably improved. Moreover, both rural and urban incomes have increased and food production satisfies Bangladesh’s domestic needs.

Bangladesh consists primarily of low-lying deltaic plains. The Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers (known as the Padma and Jamuna in Bangladesh) and countless smaller tributaries criss-cross the country. The capital, Dhaka, is fewer than 25 feet above sea level. During the monsoon season from June to October, between 30% and 70% of the country is under water due to flooding of rivers. Heavy rainfall is characteristic of Bangladesh, with most parts of the country receiving about 200 centimeters (80 inches) of rainfall per year. Annual cyclones can cause extreme flooding and have led to great losses of life and property damage.

In Bangladesh, a common method for political parties and other organizations to articulate their political demands is by calling for a hartal, or general strike. Hartals, whose purpose is to disrupt or shut down services either locally or throughout the country, can turn violent if the population, or political groups, enforce the shutdown. Even demonstrations that are meant to be peaceful can become violent and unpredictable.
Current sources of political and social unrest include: displeasure over verdicts from Bangladesh’s International Crimes Tribunal, labor disputes, and preparations for national elections scheduled for early 2014. These demonstrations have led to frequent violent clashes between police and protesters, resulting in deaths, injuries and property damage. In various areas of the country demonstrators have blocked highways and roads to all traffic and have damaged rail tracks and trains. Participants have thrown rocks, debris, and homemade low-yield explosives. Security forces have used tear gas, non-lethal crowd control measures, and firearms against demonstrators. Protests have centered in major metropolitan areas, including Dhaka, Sylhet, and Chittagong, but have also taken place throughout the country, including rural areas.

CRIME: The Department of State rates Dhaka as having a high crime rate; the types of crime are comparable to any other world capital or large city. Always take precautions such as being alert and aware, locking home and vehicle doors, varying routes and schedules, traveling in groups, never walking alone at night, and parking near entrances or security lamps. Hiring a 24-hour guard is highly recommended due to the possibility of trespassing and break-ins. In general, crime dramatically increases in the hours of darkness; this includes dusk and dawn. Urban crime can be organized or opportunistic, conducted by individuals or groups, and commonly encompasses fraud, theft (larceny, pick-pocketing, and snatch-and-grab), robbery (armed and unarmed), carjacking, rape, assault, and burglary (home and auto). Incidents of crime and levels of violence are higher in low-income residential and congested commercial areas, but are seen in wealthier areas as well, including the Diplomatic Enclave in Dhaka. Many of the reported attacks occurred while the victims were riding in rickshaws; other incidents involved the targeting of small groups of foreigners on foot.

To reduce your risk while riding in a rickshaw, keep your bags or valuables under your legs, away from passing vehicle traffic, and ensure that your bag’s carrying straps are not visible. For security reasons, Embassy personnel are prohibited from riding in taxis, buses, rickshaws in Dhaka (outside of Dhaka’s Diplomatic Enclave) and engine-powered rickshaws (also known as CNGs or auto rickshaws) and recommends that U.S. citizens exercise similar caution. Although U.S. embassy personnel may use trains in Bangladesh, travelers are warned to use extreme caution as trains in Bangladesh are known to be boarded by robbers at all hours of the day on all routes and larceny commonly occurs. Avoid carrying or displaying large sums of money or wearing expensive jewelry and be aware of your surroundings when you use ATMs. Valuables should be stored in hotel safety deposit boxes and should not be left unattended in hotel rooms.

Police are generally responsive to reports of crimes against U.S. citizens. However, crimes often go unsolved or unprosecuted.
If you are assaulted, the Embassy recommends that you not fight with your attacker. Flee to a safe area and report the situation to the local authorities. Let go of your purse or backpack rather than fight to retain possession of it. Use hotel safes or lock-boxes for valuables. We encourage all U.S. citizens to carry their mobile phones with them at all times and to travel in pairs or groups. It is also a good idea to travel with a native Bangla-speaker if you intend to travel outside urban areas.

Taxis, if available at all, are unsafe and unreliable. Long-term visitors typically hire a car and driver; short-term visitors should hire a car through their hotel and arrange in advance with their hotel or other reliable party for pickup by hotel vehicle or similar transportation. 
Women should observe stringent security precautions, including avoiding use of public transport after dark without the company of known and trustworthy companions, restricting evening entertainment to well-known venues, and avoiding isolated areas when alone at any time of day. Keep your hotel room number confidential and make sure hotel room doors have chains, deadlocks, and spy-holes. Hire only reliable cars and drivers and avoid traveling in vehicles hailed on the street.

Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only is it illegal in the United States, you may be breaking local law too.

Natural Disasters - 
Storm surges of up to 10 meters associated with these cyclones are relatively common. According to the World Bank, 60%of the worldwide deaths caused by cyclones in the last 20 years were in Bangladesh. Tornadoes are also common in Bangladesh, one of the mosthard-hit countries in the world for these storms. Earthquakes are most common in the northern and eastern parts of Bangladesh, but as Bangladesh is close to the intersection of the Indian, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates, the potential for catastrophic earthquakes anywhere in the country is ever-present. As a general matter, disaster preparedness of local and national authorities in Bangladesh is far below U.S. standards.

Bangladesh is considered at extreme risk for natural disasters related to weather or other natural events. One recent survey ranked Bangladesh the country most at risk in the aggregate for natural disasters. Flooding is the most common hazard, having killed untold hundreds of thousands of people even within the modern era. During the monsoon season, generally from June to October, between 30% and 70% of the country is under water due to flooding from the Ganges, Meghna, and the Brahmaputra Rivers.

Cyclones, the local name for hurricanes, occur most frequently in May through October. Severe cyclones strike Bangladesh on average once every three years. 

Before looking at the issues to be discussed, the second part of the introduction attempts to present the theoretical constructions of the two concepts. This is done for two reasons: (i) to provide a
perspective for what scholars assert about the concepts (ii) to avoid repetitions, and to ground the 

....to be continued 
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